Saturday, 10 January 2015

Ghadir declration

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Today is 18 Dhul-hijjah, the day when the Prophet (SAW) stayed at Ghadīr Khum after his return from Hajjat-ul-wadā‘ to Medina, and surrounded by the Companions (RA), he declared while raising the hand of ‘Alī al-Murtadā (SAW):

مَنْ كُنتُ مَولاهُ فعَلِيٌّ مَولاهُ
One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master

This was the declaration of ‘Alī’s spiritual sovereignty and its unconditional acceptance is binding on the believers till the Day of Judgment. It clearly proves that anyone who denies ‘Alī’s spiritual leadership in fact denies the Prophet’s leadership. This most humble follower of the Prophet (SAW) felt that some people deny this reality partly out of ignorance and partly out of prejudice, which is spreading unnecessary tension in the Muslim community. 
Under the circumstances I thought it necessary to write two pamphlets on the issue of sovereignty and leadership: one titled as The Ghadīr Declaration and the other titled The Awaited Imām. The former is designed to clarify the status of ‘Alī (AS) as the opener of the spiritual sovereignty and the latter is designed to describe the status of Imām Mahdī (AS), the seal of spiritual sovereignty. The main purpose is to remove the doubts that have gathered around the issue and to make the Muslims aware of the reality. The spiritual sovereignty of ‘Alī and Mahdī (عليهما السلام) are proved by the authentic hadīth-books of Ahl-us-Sunnah wal-Jamā‘ah, in the form of continuous traditions, that is, there is uninterrupted evidence to endorse the soundness of the claim. In the first pamphlet I have included 51 traditions which are authentically documented. The reason for this number is that this year I have completed 51 years of my life. Therefore, I have relied on the relationship of figure to make my humble contribution to the glory of ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS) and to seek the divine blessing through an expression of my humility.

I propose to establish the point that three forms of legacy are derived from the person of the Prophet (SAW):
  1. The spiritual legacy of internal (hidden) sovereignty.
  2. The political legacy of external (manifest) sovereignty.
  3. general legacy of religious sovereignty.

  • The first form of legacy was given to the members of the Prophet’s family.
  • The second form of legacy was given to the rightly-guided caliphs.
  • The third form of legacy was given to the Companions and the Successors (RA).
The internal sovereignty is the fountainhead of Prophet Muhammad’s vicegerency which not only safeguarded the spiritual achievements and hidden blessings of the religion of Islam, but also introduced the people to the blessings of Prophet Muhammad’s spiritualism. The fountains of spiritual sovereignty, saintliness and reformation originated from it.
The external sovereignty is the fountainhead of Prophet Muhammad’s vicegerency which led to the practical dominance of the religion of Islam as well as its enforcement as a symbol of worldly power. It paved the way for the creation of different Islamic states and introduced the Prophet Muhammad’s sharī‘ah as the world system.
The general legacy is the fountainhead of Prophet Muhammad’s vicegerency which promoted the teachings of Islam as well as the righteous deeds in the Muslim community. It not only helped in the preservation of knowledge and piety among the Muslims but also in the evolution and dissemination of Islamic morality. Thus the three legacies may be summed up as:
  1. The legacy of spiritualism.
  2. The legacy of dominion.
  3. The legacy of guidance.
Shāh Walī Allāh (رحمة الله تعالى عليه) has commented on this division of legacy in the following words:
پس وارث آنحضرت هم بسه قسم منقسم اند، فوراثه الذين أخذوا الحكمة و العصمة و القطبية الباطنية، هم أهل بيته و خاصته، و وراثه الذين أخذوا الحفظ و التلقين و القطبية الظاهرة الإرشادية، هم أصحابه الكبار كالخلفاء الأربعة و سائر العشرة، و وراثه الذين أخذوا العنايات الجزئية و التقوى و العلم، هم أصحابه الذين لحقوا بإحسان كأنس و أبي هريرة و غيرهم من المتأخرين، فهذه ثلاثة مراتب متفرعة من كمال خاتم الرسل صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم
People who have received the Prophet’s legacy are of three kinds: ‘The first kind is of those who received wisdom, virtuousness and inner enlightenment from him. These are the members of his family and dignitaries. The second group is of those who received the legacy of external blessings from him in the form of virtuousness, religious instruction and manifest guidance. These are his Companions, eg the four (rightly-guided) caliphs and the ten (Companions) who received glad tidings (of paradise from the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). The third group is of those who received individual blessings from him in the form of knowledge and piety. These are the people who were steeped in the virtue of selflessness, like Anas and Abū Hurayrah (رضي الله تعالى عنهما), and the people who came later.’ The three forms of legacy owe their origin to the finality of messengership.
It may be noted that this division is based on convenience and distinction as each form of legacy shares the qualities of other legacies:
In dominion, Abū Bakr as-Siddīq (RA) was a directly appointed deputy of the Prophet (SAW).
In spiritualism and saintliness ‘Alī al-Murtadā (RA) was his directly appointed deputy.
In guidance all of his Companions and Caliphs (RA) were his directly appointed deputies.
It means that three forms of permanent study were born out of the finality of prophethood for the eternal propagation of Prophet Muhammad’s blessings:
  1. Political legacy
  2. Spiritual legacy
  3. Intellectual and practical legacy
  • The political legacy of the Prophet (SAW) was known as khilāfah rāshidah (the rightly-guided caliphate).
  • The spiritual legacy of the Prophet (SAW) was known as wilāyah (spiritual sovereignty) and imāmah (spiritual leadership).
  • The intellectual and practical legacy of the Prophet (SAW) came to be known as guidance and belief.
Therefore, the first man of political legacy was Abū Bakr as-Siddīq (RA), the first man of spiritual legacy was ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS), and the first men of intellectual and practical legacy were the Companions (RA). So all these legatees were independently appointed within their own orbits of influence and had no clash or contradiction with one another.
The other important point is that these legacies also stand apart in many other matters:

  1. The manifest caliphate is the political office of the religion of Islam.
    The hidden caliphate is exclusively a spiritual office.
     

  2. The manifest caliphate is an elective and consultative issue.
    The hidden caliphate is an inherent and selective act.
     

  3. The manifest caliph is elected by the people.
    The hidden caliph is elected by God.
     

  4. The manifest caliph is elected.
    The hidden caliph is selected.
     

  5. This is the reason that the first caliph Abū Bakr as-Siddīq (RA) was elected on the basis of ‘Umar Fārūq’s proposal and the support of the majority of public opinion. But the election of the first Imām of spiritual sovereignty — ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS) — required neither anybody’s proposal nor support.
     

  6. Caliphate was a democratic act, therefore, the Prophet (SAW) did not declare it. Spiritual leadership was an act of designation; therefore, the Prophet (SAW) declared it in the valley of Ghadīr Khum.
     

  7. The Prophet (SAW) left the election of the caliph to the will of the people, but himself announced his spiritual heir with the divine consent.
     

  8. Caliphate is established for improving the administration of the earth.
    Spiritual leadership is established to beautify it with the heavenly charm and grace.
     

  9. Caliphate makes men just.
    Spiritual leadership makes them perfect.
     

  10. Caliphate is confined to the floor.
    Spiritual leadership extends to the Throne.
     

  11. Caliphate is ineffective without crowning.
    Spiritual leadership is effective even without crowning. 
     

  12. This is probably the reason that caliphate is entrusted to the Ummah, and
    Spiritual leadership is entrusted to the progeny.
“Thus we can deny neither the khilāfah (caliphate; political leadership) nor the wilāyah (spiritual leadership). The direct caliphate of Abū Bakr as-Siddīq (RA) was established with the consensus of the people and is categorically proved by the evidence of history. The direct spiritual leadership of ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS) was announced by the Prophet (SAW) himself and is categorically proved by the evidence of unbroken chain of traditions. The proof of the caliphate is the consensus of the Companions (RA), the proof of spiritual sovereignty (wilāyah) is the declaration of the Prophet (SAW). One who denies the caliphate in fact denies history and consensus, and one who denies the spiritual leadership (wilāyah) denies the Prophet’s declaration. Therefore, both the caliphate and the spiritual leadership are inescapable realities. What is urgently needed is a clear understanding of the reality of the two institutions in order to present them to the people as unity, and not as division.”

It should be understood that just as the manifest caliphate started with the early caliphs and its blessings percolated down to the righteous and just rulers, similarly the hidden caliphate started with ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS) and its blessings gradually trickled to the members of the Prophet’s family and the saints of the Ummah. By means of the declaration — مَنْ كُنْتُ مَولاهُ فَعَلِيٌّ مَولاهُ (one who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master) — and — عليّ وليكم من بعدي (‘Alī is your spiritual leader after me) — the Prophet (SAW) pronounced ‘Alī (AS) as the opener of the spiritual kingdom.
Shāh Walī Allāh (رحمة الله تعالى عليه) says:
و فاتحِ اَوّل اَزين اُمت مرحومه حضرت على مرتضى است كرم الله تعالى وجهه
In this Ummah the first person to open the door of spiritual dominion is ‘Alī al-Murtadā (كرم الله تعالى وجهه).
و سِر حضرت اَمير كرم الله وجهه در اولاد كرام ايشان رضي الله عنهم سرايت كرد
The secret of spiritual dominion of the leader permeated his progeny.
چنانكه كسى اَز اولياء امت نيست الا بخاندانِ مرتضى رضي الله عنه مرتبط است بوجهى اَز وجوه
Therefore, not a single saint is found in the Ummah who is not directly or indirectly indebted to the spiritual leadership of ‘Alī ((AS) to attain spiritual leadership).
و اَز اُمت آنحضرت صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم اَوّل كسيكه فاتح باب جذب شده است، و دران جا قدم نهاده است حضرت امير المؤمنين على كرم الله وجهه، و لهذا سلاسل طرق بدان جانب راجع ميشوند


The first person in the Prophet’s Ummah who opened the ecstasy gate of spiritual sovereignty and who stepped (firstly) on to this elevated spot is ‘Alī (كرم الله وجهه). That is why different chains of spirituality turn to him.

5. Shāh Walī Allāh (رحمة الله تعالى عليه) writes:
“Now in Ummah anyone who is blessed with spiritual leadership by Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) is indebted either to ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS) or to the Chief Helper Jīlānī (رحمة الله تعالى عليه). No one can reach the status of wilāyah without this (indebted-ness).” 
It may be noted that the relationship with Chief Helper is a ray of the lamp that is ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS) and therefore indebtedness to him is in fact indebtedness to ‘Alī (AS).

Shāh Ismā‘īl Dihlawī has clarified this point:
Alī al-Murtadā (AS) has also an edge over Abū Bakr as-Siddīq (RA) and ‘Umar Fārūq (RA) and this edge lies because of the greater number of his followers and all the highest spiritual and saintly activity, from his days to the end of the world, has to be mediated through him, and he has a say in the kingdom of the kings and the leadership of the leaders and this is not hidden from those who are familiar with the world of sovereignty… Most spiritual chains are directly derived from ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS). So, on the Day of Judgement, ‘Alī’s army including followers of high status and great reputation, will outnumber and outshine others to be a source of wonder for all the spectators.”
This spiritual treasure house, whose fountainhead is ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS), is shared by Fātimah, Hasan and Husayn (AS) as its direct legatees and then it was filtered down to the twelve Imāms (spiritual leaders), the last leader being Imām Mahdī (AS). Just as ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS) is the opener of spiritual sovereignty, Imām Mahdī (AS) is the seal of spiritual sovereignty.
The words of Shaykh Ahmad Sarhandī (رحمة الله تعالى عليه) appropriately highlight the point:

و راهى است كه بقرب ولايت تعلق دارد: اقطاب و اوتاد و بدلاء و نجباء و عامه اولياء الله، به همين راه واصل اندراه سلوك عبارت ازين راه است بلكه جذبه متعارفه، نيز داخل همين است و توسط و حيلولت درين راه كانن است و پيشواى، و اصلان اين راه و سرگروه اينها و منبع فيض اين بزرگواران: حضرت على مرتضى است كرم الله تعالى وجهه الكريم، و اين منصب عظيم الشان بايشان تعلق دارد درينمقام گونيا هر دو قدم مبارك آنسرور عليه و على آله الصلوة و السلام بر فرق مبارك اوست كرم الله تعالى وجهه حضرت فاطمه و حضرات حسنين رضي الله عنهم درينمقام با ايشان شريكند، انكارم كه حضرت امير قبل از نشاءه عنصرى نيز ملاذ اين مقام بوده اند، چنانچه بعد از نشاءه عنصرى و هر كرا فيض و هدايت ازين راه ميرسيد بتوسط ايشان ميرسيد چه ايشان نزد نقطه منتهائى اين راه و مركز اين مقام بايشان تعلق دارد، و چون دوره حضرت امير تمام شد اين منصب عظيم القدر بحضرات حسنين ترتيبا مفوض و مسلم گشت، و بعد از ايشان بهريكى از ائمه اثنا عشر على الترتيب و التفصيل قرار گفت و در اعصاراين بزرگواران و همچنين يعد از ارتحال ايشان هر كرا فيض و هدايت ميرسيد بتوسط اين بزرگواران بوده و بحيلولة ايشانان هر چند اقطاب و نجباى وقت بوده باشند، و ملاذ و ملجاء همه ايشان روده اند چه اطراف را غير از لحوق بمركز چاره نيست.
And there is another way close to the spiritual sovereignty and this is the way of the saints and the general friends of Allāh, and this way is marked by its characteristic passion and it carries the guarantee of mediation and the leader and chieftain of the saints of this way is ‘Alī al-Murtadā (كرم الله تعالى وجهه الكريم). And this grand office is reserved for him. On this way, the feet of the Holy Prophet (SAW) are on ‘Alī’s head and Fātimah and Hasan and Husayn (عليهم السلام) are included with him. I believe that he enjoyed this position even before his physical birth, as he did after it, and whosoever has received the divine blessing and guidance, has received it through him, because he is closest to the last point on this way and the centre of this spot belongs to him. And when his period ended, the grand office passed on to Hasan and Husayn (رضي الله تعالى عنهما) and then on to each one of the twelve Imāms, individually and elaborately. And whosoever received guidance in their life and after their death, received it through these saints. And the refuge and place of shelter of the saints of high ranks are these saints, (because they are the centre of all spiritual activity) and the sides tend to converge on the centre. 
Shaykh Ahmad Sarhandī (رحمة الله تعالى عليه) believes that Imām Mahdī (AS) will be with ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS) in the caravan of sovereignty or spiritual leadership.

The gist of the discussion is that the Prophet’s declaration at Ghadīr Khum proved forever that ‘Alī’s spiritual sovereignty is in fact the Prophet Muhammad’s spiritual sovereignty. Though the door of prophethood was closed after the Holy Prophet (SAW), Allāh opened new avenues for the continuation of the Prophet’s blessings till the Day of Judgement. Some of these avenues were manifest, while others hidden. The hidden avenue led to spiritual sovereignty and ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS) was the first person to hold this office. Then this chain of sovereignty passed down to his progeny and finally to the twelve Imāms. During this period, many leaders appeared on the spiritual horizon but they all, direcly or indirectly, expressed their allegiance to ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS). No one was disaffiliated from him and this chain will continue up to the Day of Judgement until the appearance of the last Imām (spiritual leader), and he will be Imām Muhammad Mahdī (AS), the twelfth Imām and the last caliph. In his person, the manifest and the hidden paths which ran parallel to each other will be rejoined, as he will be the spiritual as well as the political legatee, and he will be the last person to hold these offices. Any one who denies Imām Mahdī (AS) will deny both the manifest and hidden forms of religion.
This will be the climax of the Prophet Muhammad’s manifestation. Therefore, he will be named Muhammad and he will also resemble the Holy Prophet (SAW) in moral excellence, so that the world should know that he is the trustee of the manifest and hidden legacies of Muhammad’s blessings. That is why the Prophet (SAW) said, “Anyone who denies Mahdī will be a disbeliever.”
At that time, he will be the focus of all saints on earth, and, being the leader of Prophet Muhammad’s Ummah, ‘Īsā (AS) will offer his prayer behind him and proclaim his leadership to the whole world.

So we should realize that ‘Alī al-Murtadā (AS) and Mahdī (AS) — the father and the son — are both Allāh’s friends and the Prophet’s legatees. It is therefore binding on every believer to acknowledge their exceptional status.
May Allāh bless the servants of the Prophet’s family with their guidance. 

Hadīth No. 1

عن شعبة، عن سلمة بن كهيل، قال: سمعت أبا الطفيل يحدث، عن أبي سريحة رضي الله عنه — أو زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه (شك شعبة) — عن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم، قال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.
وقد روى شعبة هذا الحديث، عن ميمون أبي عبد الله، عن زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه، عن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم.
“Shu‘bah relates it from Salmah bin Kuhayl: I heard it from Abū Tufayl that Abū Sarīhah (RA) — or Zayd bin Arqam (RA) (Shu‘bah has doubts about the narrator) — relates that the Prophet (SAW) said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.
“Shu‘bah has related the tradition from Maymūm Abū ‘Abdullāh, who related it on the authority of Zayd bin Arqam (RA) and he has related it from the Holy Prophet (SAW).”[1]

Hadīth No. 2

عن عمران بن حصين رضي الله عنه، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: ما تريدون من علي؟ ما تريدون من علي؟ ما تريدون من علي؟ إن عليا مني وأنا منه، وهو ولي كل مؤمن من بعدي.
“‘Imrān bin Husayn (RA) has narrated that Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) said: What do you people want about ‘Alī? What do you people want about ‘Alī? What do you people want about ‘Alī? Then added: Surely ‘Alī is from me and I am from ‘Alī and after me he is the guardian of every believer.”[2]

Hadīth No. 3

عن سعد بن أبي وقاص رضي الله عنه، قال: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، وسمعته يقول: أنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى إلا أنه لا نبي بعدي، وسمعته يقول: لأعطين الراية اليوم رجلا يحب الله ورسوله.
“It is related by Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās (RA): I heard Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) say: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. And I heard him say (to ‘Alī (RA)): You are in my place as Hārūn was in Mūsā’s place, but there is no prophet after me. And I also heard him say (on the occasion of the battle of Khaybar): Today I shall bestow the flag on the person who loves Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger (SAW).”[3]

Hadīth No. 4

عن البراء بن عازب رضي الله عنه، قال: أقبلنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في حجته التي حج، فنزل في بعض الطريق، فأمر الصلاة جامعة، فأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: ألست أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: ألست أولى بكل مؤمن من نفسه؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: فهذا ولي من أنا مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، اللهم! عاد من عاداه.
“Barā’ bin ‘Āzib (RA) narrates: We performed hajj with Allāh’s Messenger (SAW). On the way he stayed at a place and commanded us (to establish) the prayer in congregation. After this, he held ‘Alī’s hand, and said: Am I not nearer than the lives of the believers? They replied: Why not! He said: Am I not nearer than the life of every believer? They replied: Why not! He said: One who has me as his master has this (‘Alī) as his guardian. O Allāh! Befriend the one who befriends him and be the enemy of one who is his enemy.”[4]

Hadīth No. 5

عن البراء بن عازب رضي الله عنه، قال: كنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في سفر، فنزلنا بغدير خم، فنودي فينا: الصلاة جامعة، وكسح لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم تحت شجرتين، فصلى الظهر وأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: ألستم تعلمون أنى أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: ألستم تعلمون أنى أولى بكل مؤمن من نفسه؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: فأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه. قال: فلقيه عمر رضي الله عنه بعد ذلك، فقال له: هنيئا يا ابن أبي طالب! أصبحت وأمسيت مولى كل مؤمن ومؤمنة.
“It is narrated by Barā’ bin ‘Āzib (RA): We were on a journey with Allāh’s Messenger (SAW). (On the way) we stayed at Ghadīr Khum. There it was announced that the prayer was about to be offered. The space under two trees was cleaned for Allāh’s Messenger (SAW). Then he offered the zuhr (noon) prayer, and, holding ‘Alī’s hand, he said: Don’t you know that I am even nearer than the lives of the believers? They said: Why not! He said: Don’t you know that I am even nearer than the life of every believer? They said: Why not! The narrator says that he said while holding ‘Alī’s hand: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Befriend the one who befriends him (‘Alī) and be the enemy of one who is his enemy. The narrator says that after this ‘Umar (bin al-Khattāb (RA)) met ‘Alī (RA) and said to him: O Ibn Abī Tālib! Congratulations, you have become the master of every male and female believer, morning and evening (for ever).”[5]

Hadīth No. 6

عن ابن بريدة عن أبيه، قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: من كنت وليه فعليّ وليه.
“Ibn Buraydah has attributed it to his father: Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) said: One who has me as his guardian has ‘Alī as his guardian.”[6]

Hadīth No. 7

عن زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه، قال: لما رجع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم من حجة الوداع، ونزل غدير خم، أمر بدوحات فقمن، فقال: كأني قد دعيت فأجبت، إني قد تركت فيكم الثقلين، أحدهما أكبر من الآخر: كتاب الله تعالى، وعترتي، فانظروا كيف تخلفوني فيهما، فإنهما لن يتفرقا حتى يردا علي الحوض. ثم قال: إن الله عز وجل مولاي، وأنا مولى كل مؤمن. ثم أخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: من كنت مولاه فهذا وليه، اللهم! وال من والاه، وعاد من عاداه.
“It is narrated by Zayd bin Arqam (RA): When Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) was returning after the Hajjat-ul-wadā‘, he stayed at Ghadīr Khum. He commanded that a canopy should be put up and so it was done. Then he said: It seems as if I am about to breathe my last which I shall accept. Indeed, I am leaving two important things in your midst which exceed each other in importance: One (is) Allāh’s Book and the other (is) my progeny. Now it is to be seen how do you treat both of them after me and they will not be separated from each other, and they will appear before me at the Fountain of kawthar. Then added: Surely Allāh (SWT) is my Master and I am the master of every believer. Then, holding ‘Alī’s hand, he said: One who has me as his master has this (‘Alī) as his guardian. O Allāh! Befriend him who befriends him (‘Alī) and be the enemy of one who is his enemy.”[7]

Hadīth No. 8

عن ابن واثلة أنه سمع زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه، يقول: نزل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم بين مكة والمدينة عند شجرات خمس دوحات عظام، فكنس الناس ما تحت الشجرات، ثم راح رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم عشية، فصلى، ثم قام خطيبًا، فحمد الله وأثنى عليه، وذكر ووعظ، فقال ما شاء الله أن يقول، ثم قال: أيها الناس! إني تارك فيكم أمرين، لن تضلوا إن اتبعتموهما، وهما كتاب الله، وأهل بيتي عترتي، ثم قال: أتعلمون إني أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ ثلاث مرات، قالوا: نعم. فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.
“Ibn Wāthilah is reported to have heard from Zayd bin Arqam (RA) that the Prophet (SAW) was camping between Makkah and Medina near five dense trees. The people cleaned the place under the trees and he rested there for some time. He offered the prayer and then stood up to address the people. He praised Allāh (SWT), gave some advice to the audience and then said whatever Allāh (SWT) wanted him to say. He said: O people! I am leaving two things with you. You will never go astray as long as you follow them and these (two things) are Allāh’s Book and my progeny. He then added: Don’t you know I am nearer than the lives of the believers? He repeated it three times. Everyone said: yes. Then he said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.”[8]

Hadīth No. 9

عن زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه، قال: خرجنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم حتى انتهينا إلى غدير خم، فأمر بروح فكسح في يوم ما أتى علينا يوم كان أشدّ حرًا منه، فحمد الله وأثنى عليه، وقال: يا أيها الناس! أنه لم يبعث نبي قط إلا ما عاش نصف ما عاش الذي كان قبله، وإني أوشك أن أدعى فأجيب، وإني تارك فيكم ما لن تضلوا بعده كتاب الله عز وجل. ثم قام فأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه، فقال: يا أيها الناس! من أولى بكم من أنفسكم؟ قالوا: الله ورسوله أعلم. ألست أولى بكم من أنفسكم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.
“Zayd bin Arqam (RA) narrates: We set out with Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) until we reached Ghadīr Khum. He commanded that a canopy should be put up. He looked tired on that day and it was a very hot day. He praised Allāh (SWT) and then said: O people, out of the prophets Allāh (SWT) sent, each new prophet had a life span half as much as that of his predecessor, and it seems to me that soon I may be called (to breathe my last) which I shall accept. I am leaving in your midst something that will never let you go astray, and that is the Book of Allāh (SWT). Then he stood up, held ‘Alī’s hand and said: O people, who is he who is nearer than your lives? All of them said: Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger (SAW) know better. (Then added:) Am I not nearer than your lives? They said: Why not! He said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.”[9]

Hadīth No. 10

عن سعد بن أبي وقاص رضي الله عنه، قال: لقد سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول في علي رضي الله عنه ثلاث خصال، لأن يكون لي واحدة منهن أحب إلي من حمر النعم:
سمعته يقول: إنه بمنزلة هارون من موسى، إلا أنه لا نبي بعدي، وسمعته يقول: لأعطين الراية غدا رجلا يحب الله ورسوله، ويحبه الله ورسوله، وسمعته يقول: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.
“Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās (RA) says that he heard Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) describe three qualities of ‘Alī (RA). Had I possessed anyone of them, it would have been dearer to me than red camels.
“I heard him say: Indeed, he (‘Alī) is in my place as Hārūn was in Mūsā’s place, but there is no prophet after me. And I heard him say: Today I shall bestow the flag on the person who loves Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger (SAW), and Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger (SAW) love him too. And I heard him say: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.”[10]

Refrences

[1]. Tirmidhī has declared it fair, sound and weak (hasan sahīh gharīb) in al-Jāmi‘us-sahīh, b. of manāqib (merits) 6:79 (#3713), and Shu‘bh, in the manner of Maymūn Abū ‘Abdullah, has also related it on the authority of Zayd bin Arqam (RA). Ahmad bin Hambal narrated it inFadā’il-us-sahābah (2:569 # 959); Mahāmilī, Amālī (p.85); Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr(5:195, 204 # 5071, 5096); Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (pp.603, 604 # 1361, 1363, 1364, 1367, 1370); Nawawī, Tahdhīb-ul-asmā’ wal-lughāt (p.318); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr(45:163, 164); Ibn Athīr, Asad-ul-ghābah fī ma‘rifat-is-sahābah (6:132); Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:463); and ‘Asqalānī in Ta‘jīl-ul-manfa‘ah (p.464 # 1222).
It has been related from ‘Abdullāh bin ‘Abbās رضي الله) عنهما) in the following books:
  1. Hākim, al-Mustadrak (3:134 # 4652).
  2. Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (12:78 # 12593).
  3. Khatīb Baghdādī, Tārīkh Baghdad (12:343).
  4. Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:108).
  5. Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:77, 144).
  6. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:451).
This tradition has been related on the authority of Jābir bin ‘Abdullāh رضي الله عنهما)) in the following books:
  1. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.602 # 1355).
  2. Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:59 # 12121).
This tradition has been reproduced from Abū Ayyūb al-Ansārī (RA):
  1. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.602 # 1354).
  2. Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (4:173 # 4052).
  3. Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (1:299 # 348).
This tradition has been related by Sa‘d (RA) in the following books:
  1. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (pp.602,605#1358,1375).
  2. Diyā’ Maqdisī, al-Ahādīth-ul-mukhtārah (3:139 # 937).
  3. Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (20:114).
The following narrated it through Buraydah (RA):
  1. ‘Abd-ur-Razzāq, al-Musannaf (11:225 # 20388).
  2. Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-us-saghīr (1:71).
  3. Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:143).
This tradition has been reproduced from Ibn Buraydahرضي الله عنهما)) in the following books:
  1. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.601 # 1353).
  2. Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:146).
  3. Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:457).
  4. Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:602 # 32904).
The following transmitted it through Hubshā bin Junādah (RA):
  1. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.602 # 1359).
  2. Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:608 # 32946).
This tradition has been related from Mālik bin Huwayrith in the following books:
  1. Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (19:252 # 646).
  2. Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:177).
  3. Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:106).
Tabarānī related it from Hudhyfah bin Usayd al-Ghifārī (RA) in al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (3:179 # 3049).
Ibn ‘Asākir has narrated it through Hasan bin Hasan in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (15:60,61).
Ibn ‘Asākir related it from Abū Hurayrah, ‘Umar bin al-Khattāb, Anas bin Mālik and ‘Abdullāh bin ‘Umar (RA) in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:176, 177, 178, 178) respectively.
Ibn ‘Asākir related it from Buraydah (RA) with slightly different words in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:143).
Ibn Athīr narrated it through ‘Abdullāh bin Yāmīl in Asad-ul-ghābah fī ma‘rifat-is-sahābah(3:412).
Haythamī narrated it through Abū Burdah رضي الله عنهما)) in Mawārid-uz-zam’ān (p.544 # 2204).
‘Asqalānī said in Fath-ul-bārī (7:74): Tirmidhī and Nasā’ī narrated the tradition and it is supported by numerous chains of transmission.
Albānī says in Silsilat-ul-ahādīth-is-sahīhah (4:331 # 1750) that its chain of authorities issahīh (sound) according to the conditions of Bukhārī and Muslim.
[2]. Tirmidhī narrated it in al-Jāmi‘-us-sahīh, b. of manāqib (merits) 6:78 (#3712); Nasā’ī with the sound chains of transmission in Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīn ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp.77, 92 # 65, 86), and as-Sunan-ul-kubrā (5:132 # 8484); Ahmad bin Hambal in Fadā’il-us-sahābah (2:620 # 1060), and the last words of the tradition narrated in his Musnad (4:437, 438) are:
وقد تغير وجهه, فقال: دعوا عليا, دعوا عليا, إن علي مني وأنا منه, وهو ولي كل مؤمن بعدي.
And his face flashed. Then he said: give up (opposing) ‘Alī, give up (opposing) ‘Alī. Surely ‘Alī is from me and I am from ‘Alī and after me he is the guardian of every believer.
Ibn Kathīr also narrated it with these words in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:458).
Hākim in al-Mustadrak (3:110,111#4579) has declared this tradition sound according to the conditions laid down by Imām Muslim while Dhahabī has kept silent about it.
Abū Ya‘lā has narrated it in al-Musnad (1:293 # 355) and its narrators are men of integrity while Ibn Hibbān has also called it sound.
The tradition in Tayālisī’s Musnad (p.111#829) also contains these words: The Prophet (SAW) said:
ما لهم ولعلي؟
Why are they so concerned about ‘Alī?
Ibn Hibbān narrated it with a firm (qawī) chain of transmission in as-Sahīh (15:373, 374 # 6929).
Ibn Abī Shaybah narrated it in al-Musannaf (12:80 # 12170); Abū Nu‘aym, Hilyat-ul-awliyā’ wa tabaqāt-ul-asfiyā’ (6:294); Muhib Tabarī, ar-Riyād-un-nadrah fī manāqib-il-‘ashrah (3:129); Haythamī, Mawārid-uz-zam’ān (p.543 # 2203); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:142 # 36444).
[3]. Ibn Mājah transmitted this sahīh (sound) hadīth in the preface (al-muqaddimah) to his Sunan(1:90 # 121); Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (p.608 # 1386); Mizzī, Tuhfat-ul-ashrāf bi-ma‘rifat-il-atrāf(3:203 # 3901); and Nasā’ī reproduced it with slightly different words in Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīm ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp. 32,33 #91).
[4]. Ibn Mājah narrated this sound hadīth (tradition) in preface (al-muqaddimah) to his Sunan (1:88 # 116); Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:168); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:602 # 32904); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:167, 168); and Ibn ‘Abī ‘Āsim briefly mentioned in as-Sunnah(p.603 # 1362).
[5]. Ahmad bin Hambal related it from Barā’ bin ‘Āzib through two different chains of transmission in al-Musnad (4:281); Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:78 # 12167); Muhib Tabarī, Dhakhā’ir-ul-‘uqbā fī manāqib dhawī al-qurbā (p.125), ar-Riyād-un-nadrah fī manāqib-il-‘ashrah (3:126, 127); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:133, 134 # 36420); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (5:167, 168); Ibn Athīr, Asad-ul-ghābah (4:103); and Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:169; 5:464).
Ahmad bin Hambal in his book Fadā’il-us-sahābah (2:610 # 1042) has added the following words in the tradition related to ‘Umar bin al-Khattāb (RA). The Prophet (SAW) said:
وعاد من عاداه, وانصر من نصره, وأحب من أحبه.
قال شعبة: أو قال: و ابغض من أبغضه.
(O Allāh!) Be the enemy of one who is his (‘Alī’s) enemy, and help him who helps him, and love him who loves him.
Shu‘bah says that the Prophet (SAW) said in its place, “Bear malice towards him who bears malice towards (‘Alī).”
Manāwī has written in Fayd-ul-qadīr (6:217) that when Abū Bakr (RA) and ‘Umar (RA) had heard the Prophet’s saying — One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master — they said to ‘Alī (RA) : O son of Abū Tālib! You have become the master of every male and female believer, morning and evening (for ever).”
Dhahabī has said in Siyar a‘lām-in-nubalā’ (2:623, 624) that ‘Umar (RA) uttered the words:
هنيئا لك يا علي!
O ‘Alī! Congratulations.
[6]. Ahmad bin Hambal narrated it in al-Musnad (5:361), and Fadā’il-us-sahābah (2:563 # 947); Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, as-Sunnah (pp.601, 603 # 1351, 1366); Hākim, al-Mustadrak (2:131 # 2589); Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:57 # 12114); Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:166 # 4968), al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (3:100, 101 # 2204); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:143); Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:108); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:602 # 32905).
The same tradition has been reproduced by Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (15:168, 169 # 36511), using slightly different words and he says that it has been narrated by Ibn Rāhawayh and Ibn Jarīr.
Ibn ‘Asākir narrated it through Fātimah (رضي الله عنها) also in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:142).
[7]. Hākim narrated it in al-Mustadrak (3:109 # 4576); Nasā’ī, as-Sunan-ul-kubrā (5:45, 130 # 8148, 8464); Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:166 # 4969); and Ibn Abī ‘Āsim related it briefly in as-Sunnah (p.644 # 1555).
Nasā’ī related it with a sound chain of authorities in Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīn ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp.84, 85 # 76).
Abū Mahāsin copied it in al-Mu‘tasar min-al-mukhtasar min Mashkal-il-āthār (2:301).
[8]. Hākim related it in al-Mustadrak (3:109, 110 # 4577); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (1:381 # 1657); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:164); and Ibn Kathīr in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:168).
[9]. Hākim graded it sahīh (sound) according to the conditions of Bukhārī and Muslim in al-Mustadrak (3:533 # 6272) and Dhahabī confirmed its soundness. Tabarānī transmitted it in al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:171,172 # 4986); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:602 # 32904).
[10]. Nasā’ī narrated it with sound chain of trasmission in Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīm ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib (pp.33, 34, 88 # 10, 80); and Hindī related it in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (15:163 # 36496) through ‘Āmir bin Sa‘d with the addition of a few words.
Shāshī narrated it through ‘Āmir bin Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās in al-Musnad (1:165, 166 # 106).
Ibn ‘Asākir narrated it through ‘Āmir bin Sa‘d and Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:88).

HadīthNo. 11

أخرج سفيان بن عيينة... عن سعد بن أبي وقاص رضي الله عنه (في مناقب علي رضي الله عنه)،  إن له لمناقب أربع: لأن يكون لي واحدة منهن أحب إلي من كذا وكذا،  ذكر حمر النعم.
قوله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: لأعطين الراية. وقوله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: بمنزلة هارون بن موسى. وقوله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: من كنت مولاه،  ونسي سفيان الرابعة.
“Sufyān bin ‘Uyaynah (in praise of ‘Alī (RA)) relates it from Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās (RA) that of the four qualities of ‘Alī (RA) if I possessed anyone of them, I would have held it dearer than such and such, even the red camels. (The four qualities were as follows:) (first quality) he was blessed with the flag (on the occasion of the battle of Khaybar; (second quality is) the Prophet’s saying about him (that they are related) as Hārūn and Mūsā (were related); (third quality is) the Prophet’s saying about him that one who has me as his master (has ‘Alī as his master). (The sub-narrator) Sufyān bin ‘Uyaynah did not remember the fourth quality.”[11]

Hadīth No. 12

عن عبد الرحمن بن سابط (في مناقب علي رضي الله عنه)،  قال: قال سعد رضي الله عنه: سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول في علي رضي الله عنه ثلاث خصال،  لأن يكون لي واحدة منهن أحب إلي من الدنيا وما فيها،  سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول: من كنت مولاه،  وأنت مني بمنزلة هارون من موسى،  ولأعطين الراية.
“‘Abd-ur-Rahmān bin Sābit (in praise of ‘Alī (RA)) relates that Sa‘d (RA) said: I heard Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) describe three of ‘Alī’s qualities that if I am blessed with anyone of them I would hold it dearer than the world and its contents. I heard Allāh’s Messenger (SAW) say: One who has me as his master (has ‘Alī as his master), and you are in my place as Hārūn was in place of Mūsā, and I shall bestow the flag on him (who is a friend of Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger (SAW), and Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger (SAW) are his friends).”[12]

Hadīth No. 13

عن رفاعة بن إياس الضبي،  عن أبيه،  عن جده،  قال: كنا مع علي رضي الله عنه يوم الجمل،  فبعث إلى طلحة بن عبيد الله أن القني،  فأتاه طلحة رضي الله عنه،  فقال: نشدتك الله! هل سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يقول: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه،  اللهم! وال من ولاه،  وعاد من عاداه؟ قال: نعم. قال: فلم تقاتلني؟ قال: لم أذكر. قال: فانصرف طلحة رضي الله عنه.
“Rifā‘ah bin Iyās ad-Dabbī relates on the authority of his father who relates it on the authority of his grandfather. He said: We were with ‘Alī (RA) on the day of the Battle of Jamal. He sent a message for Talhah bin ‘Ubaydullāh (RA) who called on him. He said: I make you swear by Allāh! Have you heard from the Messenger of Allāh (SAW): One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Befriend him who befriends him and be his enemy who is his enemy. Talhah (RA) said: Yes. ‘Alī (RA) said: Then why do you battle with me? Talhah (RA) said: I did not remember it. The narrator said: (After this) Talhah (RA) went back.”[13]

HadīthNo. 14

عن بريدة،  قال: غزوتُ مع علي رضي الله عنه اليمن،  فرأيت منه جفوة،  فلما قدمتُ على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم،  ذكرت عليا،  فتنقصته،  فرأيت وجه رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم يتغير،  فقال: يا بريدة! ألست أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قلت: بلى،  يا رسول الله! قال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.
“It is narrated by Buraydah (RA): I took part in the Battle of Yemen with ‘Alī (RA) and I had a complaint against him. When I went to see the Prophet ((SAW) returning from war), I mentioned ‘Alī in rather improper words. I saw that the Prophet’s face had flushed, and he said: O Buraydah! Am I not nearer than the lives of the believers? I said: why not, O Messenger of Allāh! At this, he said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.”[14]

Hadīth No. 15

عن ميمون أبي عبد الله،  قال: قال زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه وأنا أسمع: نزلنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم بواد يقال له وادي خم،  فأمر بالصلاة،  فصلاها بهجير. قال: فخطبنا وظلل لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم بثوب على شجرة سمرة من الشمس،  فقال: ألستم تعلمون أو لستم تشهدون أنى أولى بكل مؤمن من نفسه؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: فمن كنت مولاه فإن عليا مولاه،  اللهم! عاد من عاداه،  ووال من والاه.
“Maymūn Abū ‘Abdullāh describes that he heard Zayd bin Arqam (RA) say: We came down to a valley, named the valley of Khum, with the Messenger of Allāh (SAW). So he commanded the people to gather for the prayer and led the congregation in terrible heat. Then he delivered the sermon, and a shade was improvised by hanging a piece of cloth from the tree to protect the Messenger of Allāh (SAW) from the heat of the sun. He said: Don’t you know or bear witness (to it) that I am nearer than the life of every believer? The people said: why not! He said: so one who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Be you his enemy who is his (‘Alī’s) enemy and be you his friend who befriends him.”[15]

Hadīth No. 16

عن عطية العوفي،  قال: سألت زيد بن أرقم رضي الله عنه،  فقلت له: أن ختنا لي حدثني عنك بحديث في شأن علي رضي الله عنه يوم غدير خم،  فانا أحب أن أسمعه منك،  فقال: إنكم معشر أهل العراق فيكم ما فيكم،  فقلت له: ليس عليك منى بأس،  فقال: نعم،  كنا بالجحفة،  فخرج رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم إلينا ظهرا وهو آخذ بعضد علي رضي الله عنه،  فقال: يا أيها الناس! ألستم تعلمون أنى أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: فمن كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه. قال: فقلت له: هل قال: اللهم! وال من والاه،  وعاد من عاداه؟ قال: إنما أخبرك كما سمعت.
“It is narrated by ‘Atiyyah al-‘Awfī. He says: I asked Zayd bin Arqam (RA): I have a son-in-law who relates a hadīth in praise of ‘Alī (RA) based on your narration on the day of Ghadīr Khum. I want to hear it (directly) from you. Zayd bin Arqam (RA) said: you are a native of Iraq. May you persist in your habits! So I said: you will not receive any torture from me. (At this) he said: we were at the spot of Juhfah that at the time of zuhr (noon prayer) the Prophet (SAW), holding ‘Alī’s hand, came out. He said: O people! Don’t you know that I am even nearer than the lives of the believers? They said: why not! Then he said: one who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. ‘Atiyyah said: I inquired further: Did he also say this: O Allāh! Be his friend who befriends him (‘Alī) and be his enemy who is his enemy? Zayd ibn Arqam said: I have told you all that I had heard.”[16]

Hadīth No. 17

عن جابر بن عبد الله رضي الله عنهما،  قال: كنا بالجحفة بغدير خم،  إذا خرج علينا رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم،  فأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه،  فقال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه.
“It is narrated by Jābir bin ‘Abdullāh رضي الله عنهما)) that when we were at Ghadīr Khum in Juhfah, the Messenger of Allāh (SAW) came out, then, holding ‘Alī’s hand, he said: One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master.” [17]

Hadīth No. 18

عن علي أن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قام بحفرة الشجرة بخم،  وهو آخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه،  فقال: أيها الناس! ألستم تشهدون أن الله ربكم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: ألستم تشهدون أن الله ورسوله أولى بكم من أنفسكم؟ قالوا: بلى،  وأن الله ورسوله مولاكم؟ قالوا: بلى. قال: فمن كنت مولاه فإن هذا مولاه.
“It is narrated by ‘Alī that the Holy Prophet (SAW) was standing under a tree at Khum and he was holding ‘Alī’s hand. He said: O people! Don’t you bear witness that Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger (SAW) are even nearer than your lives? They said: Why not! (Then he added: Don’t you bear witness) that Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger are your masters. They said: Why not! He said: One who has me as his master has this (‘Alī) as his master.”[18]

Hadīth No. 19

عن حذيفة بن أسيد الغفاري رضي الله عنه... فقال صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: يا أيها الناس! إني قد نبأني اللطيف الخبير أنه لم يعمر نبي إلا نصف عمر الذي يليه من قبله،  وإني لأظن أني يوشك أن أدعي فأجيب،  وإني مسؤول،  وإنكم مسؤولون،  فماذا أنتم قائلون؟ قالوا: نشهد أنك قد بلغت وجاهدت ونصحت،  فجزاك الله خيرا. فقال: أليس تشهدون أن لا إله إلا الله،  وأن محمدا عبده ورسوله،  وأن جنته حق،  وناره حق،  وأن الموت حق،  وأن البعث بعد الموت حق،  وأن الساعة آتية لا ريب فيها،  وأن الله يبعث من في القبور؟ قالوا: بلى،  نشهد بذلك. قال: اللهم! أشهد. ثم قال: أيها الناس! إن الله مولاي وأنا مولى المؤمنين،  وأنا أولى بهم من أنفسهم،  فمن كنت مولاه فهذا مولاه — يعني عليا — اللهم! وال من والاه،  وعاد من عاداه. ثم قال: يا أيها الناس إني فرطكم وإنكم واردون علي الحوض،  حوض أعرض ما بين بصرى وصنعاء،  فيه عدد النجوم قدحانٌ من فضة،  وإني سائلكم حين تردون علي عن الثقلين،  فانظروا كيف تخلفوني فيهما،  الثقل الأكبر كتاب الله عز وجل سبب طرفه بيد الله وطرفه بأيدكم،  فاستمسكوا به لا تضلوا ولا تبدلوا،  وعترتي أهل بيتي،  فإنه قد نبأني اللطيف الخبير أنهما لن ينقضيا حتى يردا علي الحوض.
“It is narrated by Hudhayfah bin Usayd al-Ghifārī (RA)… He (SAW) said: O people! I have been told by a highly reliable source that Allāh (SWT) gave every prophet half the life span of his predecessor and I apprehend I shall (soon) receive the call and I shall accept it. I shall be asked (about my responsibilities) and you will (also) be asked (about me). What do you say (about this)? They said: we bear witness that you struggled hard to groom us in the faith and taught us virtuous things. May Allāh (SWT) bless you with a noble reward! He said: Don’t you bear witness that there is no god but Allāh (SWT) and Muhammad is Allāh’s servant and His Messenger; Paradise and Hell are a reality and life after death is a reality and there is no doubt about the Day of Judgement and Allāh (SWT) will raise us again from the graves? All of them replied: why not! We bear witness to all this. He said: O Allāh! Be you a witness. He said: O people! Surely Allāh is my master and I am the master of all believers and I am nearer than their lives. One who has me as his master has ‘Alī as his master. O Allāh! Be his friend who befriends him and be his enemy who is his (‘Alī’s) enemy. O people! I am to leave before you and you will meet me at the Fountain (of kawthar). This fountain is even wider than the distance between Basra and San‘ā’. It has silver bowls as big as the stars. When you come to me, I will ask you about two highly important things. It is to be seen how you treat them in my absence. The first important thing is Allāh’s Book which is related in one aspect to Allāh (SWT) and, in another aspect, to His servants. If you hold on to it firmly, you will neither go astray nor deviate (from truth); and (the second important thing) is my progeny, that is, the members of my family. Hold on to them. The highest authority has told me that surely these two will never deviate from the truth and they will meet me at the Fountain.”[19]

Hadīth No. 20

عن جرير رضي الله عنه،  قال: شهدنا الموسم في حجة مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم،  وهي حجة الوداع،  فبلغنا مكانا يقال له غدير خم،  فنادى: الصلاة جامعة،  فاجتمعنا المهاجرون والأنصار،  فقام رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم وسطنا،  فقال: أيها الناس! بم تشهدون؟ قالوا: نشهد أن لا إله إلا الله. قال: ثم مه؟ قالوا: وأن محمدا عبده ورسوله. قال: فمن وليكم؟ قالوا: الله ورسوله مولانا. قال: من وليكم؟ ثم ضرب بيده على عضد علي رضي الله عنه،  فأقامه فنزع عضده فأخذ بذراعيه،  فقال: من يكن الله ورسوله مولياه فإن هذا مولاه،  اللهم! وال من والاه،  وعاد من عاداه،  اللهم! من أحبه من الناس فكن له حبيبا،  ومن أبغضه فكن له مبغضا.
“It is narrated by Jarīr (RA) that at the occasion of Hajjat-ul-wadā‘ we were with the Messenger of Allāh (SAW). We reached a place called Ghadīr Khum. When the call came for congregational prayer, all the (Makkan) Immigrants and (Medinan) Helpers rallied there. Then the Prophet (SAW) stood between us and addressed us: O people! What witness do you bear? They said: We bear witness that there is no god but Allāh (SWT). He said: Then what? They said: Surely Muhammad (SAW) is His servant and Messenger. He said: then who is your guardian? They said: Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger. Then added: who else is your guardian? Then he made ‘Alī (RA) stand up by holding his hand and, holding (‘Alī’s) both arms said: This (‘Alī) is his master whose master is Allāh (SWT) and His Messenger. O Allāh! Be his friend who befriends him and be his enemy who is his (‘Alī’s) enemy. O Allāh! Love him who loves him (‘Alī) from among the people and bear malice towards him who bears malice towards him (‘Alī).”[20]

Refrences

[11]. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim related it in as-Sunnah (p.607 # 1385); and Diyā’ Maqdisī in al-Ahādīth-ul-mukhtārah (3:151 # 948).
Ahmad bin Hambal related it with a fair (hasan) chain of authorities in Fadā’il-us-sahāhah (2:643 # 1093).
Ibn ‘Asākir narrated this tradition through Sa‘d bin Abī Waqās who mentioned the four qualities in detail in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45: 89-91).
[12]. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim related it in as-Sunnah (p.608 # 1386); Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf(12:61 # 12127); and Diyā’ Maqdisī declared its chain of transmission sahīh (sound) in al-Ahādīth-ul-mukhtārah (3:207 # 1008).
Ibn ‘Asākir narrated it in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:88,89).
[13]. Hākim narrated it in al-Mustadrak (3:371 # 5594), Bayhaqī, al-I‘tiqād wal-hidāyah ilā sabīl-ir-rishād ‘alā madhhab-is-salaf wa ashāb-il-hadīth (p.373); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (27:76); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (11:332 # 31662); and Haythamī said in Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:107) that this tradition has been narrated by Bazzār through Nadhīr.
[14]. Ahmad bin Hambal related it in al-Musnad (5:347), and Fadā’il-us-sahābah (2:584, 585 # 989); Nasā’ī, as-Sunan-ul-kubrā (5:130 # 8465), Khasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīn ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib(p. 86 # 78), and Fadā’il-us-sahābah (p.14 # 42); Hākim, al-Mustadrak (3:110 # 4578); Ibn Abī Shaybah, al-Musannaf (12:84# 12181); Ibn Abī ‘Āsim, al-Āhad wal-mathānī (4:325, 326); Shāshī, al-Musnad (1:127); Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-awsat (1:229 # 348); Muhib Tabarī, ar-Riyād-un-nadrah fī manāqib-il-‘ashrah (3:128); Abū ‘Ulā, Tuhfat-ul-ahwadhī (10:147); Abū Nu‘aym, Hilyat-ul-awliyā’ wa tabaqāt-ul-asfiyā’ (4:23); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr(45:142, 146-8); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:134 # 36422).
Ibn Kathīr said in al-Bidāyah wan–nihāyah (4:168; 5:457) that the tradition narrated by Nasā’ī has a sound chain of succession (isnāduhū jayyid qawī) and all of its narrators are of integrity (rijāluhū thiqah).
[15]. Ahmad bin Hambal related it in al-Musnad (4:372); Bayhaqī, as-Sunan-ul-kubrā (5:131); Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:104); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:166); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:157 # 36485).
Tabarānī transmitted it through another chain of transmission in al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:195 # 5068).
Ibn Kathīr graded its chain of authorities fine (jayyid) in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:172), and its men are those of thiqah (trustworthy) hadīth.
[16]. Ahmad bin Hambal related it in al-Musnad (4:368), and Fadā’il-us-sahābah (2:586 # 992); Tabarānī, al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (5:195 # 5070); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr(45:165); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:105 # 36343).
Nasā’ī has narrated this tradition through Sa‘d in Kasā’is amīr-il-mu’minīn ‘Alī bin Abī Tālib(p.97 # 92) with a slight difference in the use of words.
Haythamī has referred to it in Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:107) that it has been narrated by Bazzar and its narrators are reliable (thiqah).
Maymūn Abū ‘Abdullāh describes that Zayd bin Arqam (RA) related this tradition when someone asked him about ‘Alī (RA), and Hindī has reproduced this tradition in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl(13:104, 105 # 36342).
[17]. Ibn Abī Shaybah related it in al-Musannaf (12:59 # 12121); Hindī, Kanz-ul-‘ummāl(13:137 # 32433); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:169, 170, 172); and Ibn Kathīr has written in al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (4:173) that Dhahabī has graded it fair (hasan).
Dhahabī narrated it through ‘Abdullāh bin Muhammad bin ‘Aqīl in Siyar a‘lām-in-nubalā’, (7:570, 571), who said, “‘Alī bin Husayn, Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah, Abū Ja‘far and I were at Jābir’s house.” Dhahabī says that the text of the tradition is successive.
[18]. Ibn Abī ‘Āsim related it in as-Sunnah (p. 603 # 1360); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:161, 162); and Hindī has said in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl (13:140 # 36441) that Ibn Rāhawayh, Ibn Jarīr, Ibn Abī ‘Āsim and Mahāmilī narrated it in Amālī, and graded it sahīh(sound).
[19]. Tabarānī related it in al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (3:67, 180, 181 # 2683, 3052; 5:166, 167 # 4971); Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:164, 165); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr(45:166, 167); Ibn Kathīr, al-Bidāyah wan-nihāyah (5:463); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummal(1:188, 189 # 957, 958).
Ibn ‘Asākir related it from Sa‘d also in Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:169).
[20]. Tabarānī transmitted it in al-Mu‘jam-ul-kabīr (2:357 # 2505); Haythamī, Majma‘-uz-zawā’id (9:106); Ibn ‘Asākir, Tārīkh Dimashq al-kabīr (45:179); and Hindī in Kanz-ul-‘ummāl(13:138, 139 # 36437).

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