Saturday, 4 May 2019

Hunger and Population Explosion / Questions Answers

by Anna Mekenzie
1. What does hunger mean on a large scale as viewed by the author?
Hunger does not mean missing one meal or even meals for a whole day. It means never having enough to eat.It means, when you have had something to eat at least as much again. It also means a situation in which you are always wondering where the next meal is coming from or even if there will be a next meal.
2. Describe some great famines of the past.
In the past, there were very destructive famines. There were seven years of famine in Egypt during the time of Joseph. There was one famine every five years in Europe and one major famine every ten years in England in 350 different years. China had ninety major famines in one century. There was worst famine of the century in India in 1964-65. A large number of people were killed in these famines.
3. How do famines occur?
Famines may be caused by many things. It may be that there are just too many people for the amount of food available. It may be that crops have failed due to disease. Lack of rain also leads to famines.
4. What is the main reason for population increase today?
The main reason for population increase today is due to the number of people who are born in any year being greater than the number who die. In the past only a small number of babies grew up. Nowadays, 19 out 20 babies grow up due to modern medicines. The death rate has been decreased to the minimum.
5. What is meant by birth-rate and death-rate, and how do they affect the population of a country?
Birth-rate means number of births per 1000 population and death-rate means number of deaths per 1000 population. The difference between these rates affects the population of a country. The high birth-rate and the low death-rate mean that population is increasing and low birth-rate and high death-rate mean that population is decreasing.
6. What have public-health measures to do with increase in population?
The public-health measures are largely responsible for increase in population. In the past many people were killed by various diseases like typhoid, cholera, small-pox, diphtheria, measles, etc. Child mortality rate was very high. Nowadays, science has very successfully discovered the treatment of various incurable diseases. The average life expectancy has increased. And the death-rate has been reduced.
7. Account for the high birth-rate in under-developed countries?
The birth-rate is very high in under-developed countries. Their population is mainly uneducated. They are not aware of the benefits of small families. Their population is increasing at alarming levels. As a result, they face extra burden on their small resources. Their economy is unable to meet the needs of increasing population.
8. Why is birth-rate not so high in the more advanced countries?
The birth-rate is not so high in the more advanced countries. Their population is educated. They know the benefits of small families. They act upon family planning. They use modern contraceptive methods to reduce population. The government also encourages small families through various incentives.
9. Give a brief account of the poor economic conditions prevailing in under-developed countries.
The under-developed countries suffer from poverty. Many people live below poverty line. Beggars wander everywhere. These countries lack industries and factories. They suffer from energy crisis. They have poor road and railways. Hospitals and schools are not enough. Many people are uneducated. Their economies are weak.

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